New Cochrane Review finds standardized tobacco packaging may lead to a reduction in smoking prevalence and reduces the appeal of tobacco.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco use kills more people worldwide than any other preventable cause of death. Global health experts believe the best way to reduce tobacco use is by stopping people starting to use tobacco, and encouraging and helping existing users to stop.
The introduction of standardized (or ‘plain’) packaging was recommended by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) guidelines. This recommendation was based on evidence around tobacco promotion in general and studies which examined the impact of changes in packaging on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour. Standardized tobacco packaging places restrictions on the appearance of tobacco packs so that there is a uniform colour (and in some cases shape), with no logos or branding apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information; the brand name appears in a prescribed uniform font, colour, and size.
A number of countries have implemented, or are in the process of implementing, standardized tobacco packaging. Australia was the first country in the world to implement standardized packaging of tobacco products. The laws, which took full effect there in December 2012, also required enlarged pictorial health warnings.
A team of Cochrane researchers from the UK and Canada have summarized results from studies that examine the impact of standardized packaging on tobacco attitudes and behaviour. They have published their findings in the Cochrane Library.
The author team found 51 studies that looked at standardized packaging. The studies differed in the way they were done and also what they measured. Only one country had implemented standardized packaging at the time of this review, so evidence that tobacco use prevalence may have decreased following standardized packaging comes from one large observational study. A reduction in smoking behaviour is supported by routinely collected data from the Australian government. There are data from a range of other studies to indicate that appeal is lower with standardized packaging and this may help to explain the observed decline in prevalence. Researchers did not find any evidence suggesting that standardized packaging may increase tobacco use. No studies directly measured whether standardized packs influence uptake, cessation, or whether they prevent former smokers from taking up smoking again.
The amount of evidence for standardized packaging has increased markedly since the publication of the WHO guidelines in 2008. However, given its recency, there are no data on long-term impact. The amount of evidence will continue to expand as more countries implement standardized packaging and as studies assessing the longer-term effects of the Australian policy become available.
Cochrane lead author and Deputy Director of the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Professor Ann McNeill from King’s College London, said, “Evaluating the impact of standardized packaging on smoking behaviour is difficult to do; but the evidence available to us, whilst limited at this time, indicates that standardized packaging may reduce smoking prevalence. These findings are supported by evidence from a variety of other studies that have shown that standardized packaging reduces the promotional appeal of tobacco packs, in line with the regulatory objectives set. It would appear that the impact of standardized packaging may be affected by the detail of the regulations such as whether they ban descriptors, such as ‘smooth’ or ‘gold’, and control the shape of the tobacco pack.”
Co-author Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, from the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group, Oxford, UK, added: “Our evidence suggests that standardized packaging can change attitudes and beliefs about smoking, and the evidence we have so far suggests that standardized packaging may reduce smoking prevalence and increase quit attempts. We didn’t find any studies on whether changing tobacco packaging affects the number of young people starting to smoke, and we look forward to further research on this topic.”
Full citation: McNeill A, Gravely S, Hitchman SC, Bauld L, Hammond D, Hartmann-Boyce J. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 4. Art. No: CD011244. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011244.
For further information, please contact,
Ann McNeill, Lead Author
Professor of Tobacco Addiction
UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies
National Addiction Centre
Institute of Psychiatry
King's College London
Cochrane is a global independent network of researchers, professionals, patients, carers, and people interested in health.
Cochrane produces reviews which study the best available evidence generated through research and make it easier to inform decisions about health. These are called systematic reviews.
Cochrane is a not-for-profit organization with collaborators from more than 130 countries working together to produce credible, accessible health information that is free from commercial sponsorship and other conflicts of interest. Our work is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high quality, trusted information.
Find out more at cochrane.org
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If you are a journalist or member of the press and wish to receive news alerts before their online publication or if you wish to arrange an interview with an author, please contact the Cochrane press office: email@example.comThursday, April 27, 2017
Specifications: Full Time, Permanent
Salary: Dependant on Experience
Application Closing Date: 26th May 2017
Cochrane Innovations is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Cochrane Collaboration, whose mission is to undertake trading activities of a commercial nature, based on the products and activities of Cochrane. Cochrane Response is our new evidence consultancy service providing a broad range of literature review and evidence synthesis services to international policy makers and guideline developers to support evidence informed healthcare decision making. We work closely with Cochrane networks to increase Cochrane’s capacity to respond to requests for commissioned evidence reviews and tailored evidence services.
Cochrane is a global independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making the vast amounts of evidence generated through research useful for informing decisions about health. We do this by identifying, appraising and synthesizing individual research findings to produce the best available evidence on what can work, what might harm and where more research is needed. The primary results of this work are Cochrane Systematic Reviews, recognised by healthcare professionals, policy makers and patients as the benchmark for high quality information about the effectiveness of treatment interventions.
This role is an exciting opportunity for someone to lead the development and management of the systematic review team for Cochrane Response. You will have overall responsibility for managing commissioned reviews and related work; taking on project management, customer relationship management, Cochrane engagement and systematic review production tasks. This is a commercial role where you will manage the day-to-day provision and delivery of tailored evidence synthesis services, responding to commissioners’ needs on a project by project basis.
The Ideal Candidate will have:
- First degree in related field e.g. medical sciences, biology, statistics and a higher degree relevant to research area or equivalent qualifications.
- 5+ years of relevant experience in systematic reviews.
- Authorship on at least one Cochrane Review.
- Must have demonstrated expertise in relevant evidence synthesis project management activities.
- Ability to exercise independent judgment within generally defined practices and policies that lead to methods or processes for obtaining results.
- Good organization and planning skills.
- Strong interpersonal skills and communication skills (both written and oral).
- Excellent presentation skills.
- Ability to problem solve and delegate appropriate tasks to subordinates.
- Strong leadership skills, self-motivated, adaptable to a dynamic environment.
- Able to collaborate effectively with the project team, and external partners.
- Adaptable and flexible to changing business and customer needs.
- Proficient IT skills, including Word, Excel and PowerPoint.
- Able to travel internationally.
For further information, please download the full job description.
If you would like to apply for this position, please send a CV along with a supporting statement and your salary expectations to firstname.lastname@example.org with “Cochrane Response Systematic Review Manager” in the subject line. The supporting statement should indicate why you are applying for the post, and how far you meet the requirements for the post outlined in the job description using specific examples. List your experience, achievements, knowledge, personal qualities and skills which you feel are relevant to the post.
Deadline for applications: 26th May 2017
Wednesday, April 26, 2017 Category: Jobs
The March for Science took place on Saturday, 22 April 2017 - also known as Earth Day, a commemoration of environmental advocacy and science in the public interest established in the United States nearly 50 years ago. The March took place in more than 600 cities around the world, to champion the science that upholds the common good.
Cochrane contributors participated in marches worldwide and took part in Cochrane Crowd’s March for Science Sprint Screen. For more updates, please see the round-up on our Community site.
Classified Title: Sr. Research Data Analyst
Salary: $49,957 - $68,721
Contract: Minimum 2-year commitment, with funding for up to 5 years. John Hopkins University will arrange for work visas for qualified candidates.
Status: Full Time, Monday - Friday 37.5 hrs.
Location: Baltimore, USA
Closing Date: 26 May, 2017
This position is with the Cochrane Eyes and Vision (CEV) US Project. Primary duties include providing methodological support for the production of systematic reviews of interventions to prevent and treat eye disease and visual impairment and coordinating the activities of CEV systematic reviews conducted by US-based ophthalmologists, optometrists, and other vision researchers.
As a methodologist, the candidate will assist with key tasks in the systematic review process such as refining research questions, identifying and assessing relevant research studies for eligibility, critically appraising primary studies for bias, developing data collection forms, extracting/entering data, performing qualitative and quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses) of primary studies, and preparing manuscripts for publication in The Cochrane Library.
This position will serve as a technical expert and provide regular consultation to more than 50 US-based eye care clinicians and vision researchers conducting reviews and will perform any or all of the key tasks mentioned above to provide assistance as necessary. The candidate also will work closely with the Project Director, Principal Investigator, and additional CEV staff in the United Kingdom to resolve methodological and statistical issues and to ensure that reviews conducted by US-based researchers are of the highest quality.
Will assist with the development and preparation of training materials and actively participate in workshops on evidence-based healthcare and systematic review preparation. Other duties include participating in methodological research conducted by CEV faculty, providing support to staff by identifying unpublished clinical trials, assisting with reports to the funding agency, participating in journal clubs, organizing conference calls and staff meetings, and performing other tasks as assigned.
Master's degree in Epidemiology or other health related field with one year of experience related to the preparation and interpretation of systematic reviews, data management, and quality control procedures is required. Require highly specialized advanced knowledge, education and/or training in a specialized field of study to conduct research. Excellent oral, written, and interpersonal communication skills are required. A writing sample should be submitted with the application. Ability to produce and deliver effective presentations to a diverse audience is a must. Demonstrated ability on significant graduate project or additional doctoral education may substitute for experience to the extent permitted by the JHU equivalency formula. Must possess knowledge of Medical Science and Epidemiology. Experience in eyes and vision research a plus. Computer-related skills and familiarity with a variety of software applications including word processing, graphing, statistical, presentation and reference management software an absolute requirement. Keen attention to detail and excellent time and project management skills to handle multiple priorities and concurrent projects is required for this position. Must possess the ability to work independently and exercise initiative and independent judgment.
For more information and to apply, please see the full job posting.
Thursday, April 20, 2017 Category: Jobs
Applications are invited for the post of Information Specialist / Systematic Review Methodologist, to work as part of Cochrane Vascular based in Edinburgh, UK. Cochrane Vascular facilitates the development, publication, and maintenance of Cochrane systematic reviews addressing the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular disease.
The post holder is expected to generate and manage their own workload to meet the overall objectives of Cochrane Vascular. This includes responsibility for all activities related to planning, organising and carrying out trials searching activities, working closely with and advising review authors in the development of their systematic reviews relating to trial searching and review methodology, and maintaining the Cochrane Vascular Trials Register.
The post holder must be educated to degree level with a qualification in a scientific/medical discipline, or information science, or librarianship; have significant relevant experience in a research environment; advanced literature searching expertise and experience of designing complex electronic search strategies; experience of conducting high-quality quantitative systematic reviews including critical appraisal, meta-analysis and writing up research for publication; and excellent inter-personal, writing, and communications skills.
For more information
Post: Information Specialist/Systematic Review Methodologist
Vacancy ref: 039430
Please register online at https://www.vacancies.ed.ac.uk/pls/corehrrecruit/erq_jobspec_version_4.display_form
Closing date: 21 April 2017
Wednesday, April 12, 2017 Category: Jobs
Cochrane is delighted to announce today the development of Cochrane Global Mental Health: a partnership that brings together the five Cochrane Review Groups that cover mental health conditions and the WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health and Service Evaluation, Section of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology.
Cochrane Global Mental Health is located in the city of Verona, Italy, and is affiliated with the University of Verona, where the WHO Collaborating Centre is based. Cochrane Global Mental Health will promote evidence-based decision making in mental health care in low- and middle-income countries by supporting and training new authors of Cochrane Reviews, as well as working with clinicians, professional associations, policy-makers, patients, and the media to encourage the dissemination and use of Cochrane evidence globally.
Cochrane Global Mental Health is part of Cochrane, a global independent network of researchers, professionals, patients, carers, and people interested in health. Cochrane works with collaborators from more than 130 countries to produce credible, accessible health information that is free from commercial sponsorship and other conflicts of interest. Cochrane’s work is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high quality, trusted information.
Activities of Cochrane Global Mental Health will be co-ordinated and led by Corrado Barbui, Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health and Service Organization, University of Verona, and Marianna Purgato, Post-Doctoral Researcher affiliated with the WHO Collaborating Centre.
Activities are planned, developed, and conducted in partnership with the five Cochrane Review Groups that cover mental health research: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement, Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol, and Cochrane Schizophrenia.
The Coordinator of Cochrane Global Mental Health, Corrado Barbui, says this is a hugely exciting opportunity: “The launch of Cochrane Global Mental Health is very important. We aim at developing a mutual learning approach and exchange attitude between mental health workers in different parts of the world. Producing and increasing the dissemination of the best available information on mental health care is critical for clinicians and patients everywhere in the world.”
The Cochrane Library's Editor in Chief, Dr David Tovey, warmly welcomed today’s news, “I am delighted we are announcing the Cochrane Global Mental Health which, by working closely together, will deepen and expand the scope, reach, and impact of Cochrane activities on health and healthcare decision making in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Global Mental Health will promote recognition and dissemination of studies conducted and published in low- and middle-income countries and this will not only simply increase the access of evidence, but also promote sharing of clinical experiences across countries.”
“We are keen to have a strong contribution in the work of Cochrane Global Mental Health from low- and middle-income countries, with the option of increasing involvement as capacity allows. Our chance to support mental health professionals in improving their decision making based on the best available evidence will support patient care” Marianna Purgato said. “This is an innovation for low- and middle-income countries and we intend to collaborate in the dissemination of Cochrane Reviews and to continue supporting Cochrane to reach its 2020 strategic objectives.”
For further information, please contact
Senior Media and Communications Manager, Cochrane
M +44(0) 7582 726 634 E email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
For more information on the work of Cochrane Global Mental Health, please visit the website: http://globalmentalhealth.cochrane.org/.
Cochrane is a global independent network of researchers, professionals, patients, carers, and people interested in health.
Cochrane produces reviews which study all of the best available evidence generated through research and make it easier to inform decisions about health. These are called systematic reviews.
Cochrane is a not-for-profit organization with collaborators from more than 120 countries working together to produce credible, accessible health information that is free from commercial sponsorship and other conflicts of interest. Our work is recognised as representing an international gold standard for high quality, trusted information.
Find out more at cochrane.org
Follow us on twitter @cochranecollab
If you are a journalist or member of the press and wish to receive news alerts before their online publication or if you wish to arrange an interview with an author, please contact the Cochrane press office: email@example.comFriday, April 21, 2017
Published recently, the sixth update of the Cochrane Review on Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy weighs up the evidence on a critical health and social equity issue. Smoking remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, and has serious long-term implications for women and babies. While the number of women smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries, where it’s associated with poverty, it’s increasing in low- to middle-income countries.
‘This is now one of the largest reviews in the Cochrane Library,’ explains review author Dr Catherine Chamberlain, who has worked on each update of the review since 2003. ‘It includes 102 randomised controlled trials involving almost 30,000 women. Three of these were conducted among Indigenous communities (in Australia, Canada and New Zealand), and nine were conducted in Australia. Smoking during pregnancy is three times more prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than among non-Aboriginal women, so we need to look closely at what kinds of interventions can support Indigenous women.’
In this latest update, Catherine and colleagues set out to identify and compare the effectiveness of a range of psychosocial interventions that aim to support pregnant women to stop smoking, including counselling, health education, feedback, social support, incentives and exercise. They found counselling, feedback and financial incentives appear to reduce the number of women smoking in late pregnancy. The effect of health education and social support was less clear.
‘Overall we found that psychosocial interventions increased the proportion of women who had stopped smoking in late pregnancy by 35% and also increased mean infant birthweight by 56 grams. The number of babies born with low birthweight was reduced by 17% and the number admitted to neonatal intensive care immediately after birth by 22%. However, as we note in the review, most of the studies were carried out in high-income countries, making it difficult to assess if the findings are applicable to many other contexts.’
Importantly, the review finds that the interventions don’t appear to have any overall negative physical or psychological effects, are positively received by most women, and may improve psychological well-being. But as the review highlights, the findings need to be considered carefully and in the context of many complex psychological, socio-economic and environmental factors and risks.
‘Interventions should incorporate strategies to reduce the risks we identified in this review, including stigmatisation and depicting mothers who smoke as 'harming' their babies. We know that some anti-smoking campaigns aim to shock or shame people into quitting and don’t necessarily take into account low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, poverty, stress and increased caring responsibilities that are common among women who continue to smoke during pregnancy. It’s important that psychosocial interventions don’t undermine women’s self-confidence or leave them with a sense of failure.’
To add to this complexity, some psychosocial interventions such as incentives are seen as contentious. Incentive-based interventions see women receive a financial incentive in the form of shopping vouchers (and in one study lottery tickets) contingent on their stopping smoking. Incentives are offered in conjunction with feedback interventions, where information is provided to the mother about the measurement of by-products of smoking (such as carbon monoxide or urine cotinine measurements.
‘Some of the evidence we are seeing suggests incentives can be effective, but there are a whole lot of issues around what’s seen as ‘paying people not to smoke’’, says Catherine. ‘There’s been a mixed response to the concept of incentives both here in Australia and in the UK, but I think they are really interesting in terms of using positive reinforcement rather than more punitive approaches. People in low income groups often have low self-confidence and low self-efficacy so you need to balance risk messages with positive support. We’ve had a lot of contact with the people who run incentives trials and they do seem to have been highly effective when delivered intensively, even for high risk pregnant women attending drug dependency units. Incentives have the potential to reduce inequalities and support women in practical ways and that’s encouraging. So despite the controversy, we do need to do some careful thinking and analysis around this, and look clearly at the evidence for what works for different women. Nicotine replacement therapy appears to have a small effect and most people would support subsidies for these. Yet there seems to be barriers for paying similar amounts for incentives which seem to be much more effective. There are also the added benefits of funding going directly to predominantly poor pregnant women, and the pilot evidence shows these funds are spent on useful household goods such as a washing machine or fridge. Ultimately we really need to look at and understand which psychosocial interventions work for different women and why.’
Catherine heads to the UK next month to further the aims and understanding of this review through an Endeavour Award funded by the Australian Government, the NHMRC and the Judith Lumley Centre at La Trobe University. Based with Professor James Thomas at the Evidence for Policy and Practice Centre at University College London, Catherine will meet with colleagues from the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, the UK Tobacco Control Centre and Dundee and Stirling Universities to discuss and analyse both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of this important research.
Cochrane evidence is now being translated into 14 languages following the launch of the Thai translation project.
Cochrane Thailand will contribute to Cochrane’s Translation Strategy by participating in Thai language, translation, and dissemination activities. The translation team will make Abstracts and Plain Language Summaries and podcasts accessible in Thai, with a focus on the translation of newly published and updated Cochrane Reviews. The team will disseminate Thai language content via the Cochrane Thailand Facebook page
Professor Pisake Lumbiganon, Professor Malinee Laopaiboon, and Nampet Jampathong are coordinating the Thai project. They said the translations will help to provide trusted health evidence to Thai people without language barriers.
Cochrane and Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) are delighted to announce the support of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for Cochrane and OHSU's ongoing work to build, pilot, and scale a next generation evidence system to transform the translation of health research into practice. This system is a major component of Cochrane's wider technology development program designed to address the challenge of making sense of an ever-increasing amount of health research and builds on Cochrane’s investment in projects including Linked Data, Project Transform, and review production tools.
The next generation evidence system is developing new approaches including machine learning, crowd engagement and ‘living’ systematic reviews to change the ways health data are used to discover new insights for global health.
“Cochrane is helping to create new ways of synthesising the results of health research and this project will be an important step of that journey.” said Julian Elliott, Co-PI of the project. “These systems will be more efficient and collaborative and enable research to impact on health care in near real time.”
This project has three components that together make a significant contribution to these novel systems:
- Building an active online citizen science community who will build skills and contribute to a wide range of 'micro-tasks' required to generate systematic reviews through the Cochrane Crowd platform.
- Developing, implementing, and validating natural language processing and machine learning systems that semi-automate the extraction of tabular data from research publications.
- Utilizing the above systems to deliver two exemplar 'living' systematic reviews.
The Foundation will provide a grant to support the work of Cochrane and OHSU teams and partners in the USA, UK, and Australia.
“Systematic reviews that bring the best science to bear on clinical decisions are a cornerstone of patient-centered care,” said Mark Helfand, Co-PI of the project. “ Living systematic reviews offer the best option for a future in which the public contributes to timely reviews that can move the best evidence into practice.”Thursday, March 23, 2017
We are looking for Cochrane Groups to host the 2020 and 2021 Cochrane Colloquia and the 2019, 2020, and 2021 Cochrane Governance Meetings.
Cochrane Colloquia are the flagship scientific meetings of the organization and have been held annually since 1993 in different locations across the world. They bring opportunities for people to discuss, develop, and promote scientific developments relevant to the work of Cochrane, provide training, and help shape Cochrane’s future direction. They are a chance for the community to get together to discuss the latest topics in evidence-based health care and learn about Cochrane methods through workshops and presentations.
The Colloquium is currently organized and hosted by a Cochrane Centre, Associate Centre, or Affiliate each year. The host is responsible for the local organizing of the Colloquium with support from the Central Executive Team.
The 2018 Colloquium will be held in Edinburgh and hosted by Cochrane UK; the 2019 Colloquium will be held in Santiago, Chile and hosted by Cochrane South America. We are looking for other Cochrane Groups to host the 2020 and 2021 Colloquia.
Cochrane Governance Meetings
Cochrane Governance Meetings are Cochrane’s annual business meetings. 'Cochrane Governance Meetings' is the new name for the Cochrane Mid-Year Meeting, and will be renamed for the 2018 meetings onwards.
The Governance Meetings are an opportunity for the Cochrane’s Governing Board, Councils, and Executives to meet and discuss the organization’s Strategy to 2020 and related targets, and how these are being developed and implemented.
Cochrane Portugal will be hosting the 2018 Cochrane Governance Meetings in Lisbon. We are looking for new Cochrane Groups to host our 2019, 2020, and 2021 events.
It is important to note that Governance Meetings must be held in Europe or an easily accessible transport hub. At a minimum, the location should be within two hours’ travelling time of an international airport.
Colloquium and Governance Meeting hosts are offered support from the Cochrane Executive Team throughout the organization and hosting of the event.
The deadline for submissions is 28 July 2017.Monday, March 20, 2017
Cochrane’s logo illustrates the summary results from an iconic systematic review: Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth.
Each horizontal line represents the results of one study, while the diamond represents the combined result - our best estimate of whether the treatment is effective or harmful. The diamond sits clearly to the left of the vertical line representing “no difference”; therefore the evidence indicates that the treatment is beneficial. We call this representation a “forest plot”. This forest plot within our logo illustrates an example of the potential for systematic reviews to improve health care. It shows that corticosteroids given to women who are about to give birth prematurely can save the life of the newborn child.
Despite several trials showing the benefit of corticosteroids, adoption of the treatment among obstetricians was slow. The systematic review (originally published by Crowley et al. and with a new update published 21 March) was influential in increasing use of this treatment. This simple intervention has probably saved thousands of premature babies.
Lead author Devender Roberts discusses the latest update to this important Cochrane Review in a podcast interview, and highlights the key messages that can be taken from this update:
What does this latest update tell us? What do we know that's new?
This update clarifies some methodologies and the answers to some questions, such as gestational age at first dose, or relationships between interval of first doese to delivery and outcomes - all things that can really only be determined by [looking at] individual patient data.
Is there a need for further research around different results in different settings of care?
There are many possible factors affecting outcomes in different settings of care, but no real explanation of how an intervention that is so effective over so many decades in higher-resource settings doesn't have the same effect in lower-resource settings. And in fact the WHO is sponsoring a trial to try to generate more evidence to help answer that question.
- Listen to the podcast interview
- Read the Cochrane Review
- Read a personal impact story: “Wearing Cochrane evidence”
- Watch “What is a Systematic Review?”
- Read about the history and meaning of the Cochrane logo
- Read BMJ Opinion Blogpost: “Iain Chalmers: Should the Cochrane logo be accompanied by a health warning?”
- Read “Prenatal Corticosteroids for Reducing Morbidity and Mortality after Preterm Birth” on the history of Modern Biomedicine.
World Kidney Day, held on March 9, is a global campaign aimed at raising awareness of the importance of our kidneys. To advance the 2017 theme, “Kidney Disease & Obesity: Healthy Lifestyle for Healthy Kidneys”, World Kidney Day aims to promote education about the harmful consequences of obesity and its association with kidney disease, advocating healthy lifestyle and health policy measures that make preventive behaviours an affordable option.
Cochrane Kidney and Transplant (CKT) is concerned with the evaluation of care relevant to patients with kidney disease and the means of managing problems associated with interventions (chronic care, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and side effects of medication).
A healthy lifestyle is important not only in reducing the risk of developing kidney disease, but also in improving the lives of people with the disease. In a World Kidney Day feature article, Cochrane Kidney and Transplant editor Suetonia Palmer highlights the recent Cochrane Kidney and Transplant reviews that have informed lifestyle care for people with kidney disease .
For more information about these reviews and the work of Cochrane Kidney Transplant, please visit the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant website. To learn how you can contribute to the work of Cochrane as a citizen scientist, you can visit the Cochrane website about how to get involved.
This year, Cochrane, is joining with four other leading organizations – Guidelines International Network, Campbell Collaboration, International Society for Evidence-based Health Care, and Joanna Briggs Institute - to hold the first ‘Global Evidence Summit’ in Cape Town, South Africa from 13-16 September 2017.
The theme of the Summit, ‘Using Evidence. Improving Lives.’, will highlight and promote evidence-informed approaches to health and social research, policy and development.
The Summit will focus on the opportunities and challenges facing low- and middle-income countries - a key reason why the Summit will be hosted in Cape Town, South Africa. The event is expected to attract up to 1500 delegates and will bring together many parts of the evidence community to promote evidence-informed decision-making worldwide.
Find out more at globalevidencesummit.org/registration-fees
Stipend applications open until 28 April 2017The Global Evidence Summit have also launched a number of stipend and bursaries to help consumers, students, and other attendees based in developing countries to attend.
A number of stipends and bursaries to help cover registration, travel costs, accommodation, and other expenses associated with attending the Global Evidence Summit are available for eligible applicants.
Cochrane are providing the annual consumer and developing country stipends. But the organisers have also received further funding to support delegates from a LMIC setting including policy makers and researchers as well as African-based students. Follow the link to find out whether you are eligible and how to apply. The deadline for Cochrane and Global Evidence Summit stipends is the 28 April 2017.
Find out more at globalevidencesummit.org/stipends-and-bursaries
Find out more at globalevidencesummit.org
- The Guidelines International Network
- The Campbell Collaboration
- The International Society for Evidence-based Health Care
- The Joanna Briggs Institute
Cochrane South Africa
Senior Media and Communications Manager, Cochrane
To celebrate International Women’s Day (8 March), we wanted to highlight the Anne Anderson Award, which recognizes a female member of Cochrane who has made a significant contribution to the enhancement and visibility of women's participation within Cochrane. The Anne Anderson Award is one of severally prizes awarded annually.
Who was Anne Anderson?
Anne Anderson was a contributor to the stream of thinking and effort that gave birth to evidence-based health care. A clinically qualified reproductive physiologist, Anne had an active interest in women’s health, co-editing the first edition of Women’s Problems in General Practice with Ann McPherson and contributed to Effectiveness and Satisfaction in Antenatal Care (1982), edited by Murray Enkin and Iain Chalmers. She was discussing with Marc Keirse and Iain Chalmers the possibility of co-editing a companion volume on elective birth, however her premature death from breast cancer in 1983 ended her involvement. Anne Anderson was 46 years old when she died. Iain Chalmers, Murray Enkin and Marc Keirse went on to publish Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth (ECPC) in 1989, dedicating the book in part to Anne. ECPC, through its systematic approach to assessing the research literature, is widely acknowledged to have led to development of Cochrane (more about Anne Anderson: Wikipedia).
What’s the goal of the Anne Anderson Award?
The goal of the Anne Anderson Award is to recognize and stimulate individuals contributing to the enhancement of women’s visibility and participation in Cochrane’s leadership. In the footsteps of Anne Anderson, many outstanding women continue to contribute and inspire other women to improve health knowledge for the good of their communities.
Who are some of the past recipients?
2016: Nicky Cullum
2015: Lisa Bero
2014: Elizabeth Waters
2013: Cindy Farquhar
2011: Caroline Crowther
What are the prize recipients awarded?
The 2017 Award recipient will be announced at the Global Evidence Summit, and receives a plaque from Cochrane honouring her contributions. The award recipient designates the cash award of $3000 USD to assist a woman from a low-resource setting with Cochrane activities; this will include how funds have been used to inform decision-making in a specific healthcare setting.
A new Cochrane Library Special Collection brings together Cochrane Reviews assessing evidence on interventions to support breastfeeding.
This collection of hand-picked systematic reviews on breastfeeding has been developed to bring the best available evidence on effective care to the attention of decision makers, health professionals, advocacy groups, and women and families, and to support the implementation of evidence-informed policy and practice. The collection focuses on reviews of support and care for breastfeeding women, including treatment of breastfeeding associated problems; health promotion and an enabling environment; and breastfeeding babies with additional needs. The Cochrane Reviews in this collection have been prepared by the authors and editors of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group and the Cochrane Neonatal Group.
"Breastfeeding: evidence on effecting support and enablers for mothers and their babies" - blog post from author Christine East
Tuesday, February 28, 2017
On 28 February the Cochrane Library published a Special Collection of Cochrane Reviews collecting the best evidence currently available supporting effective breastfeeding for mothers and babies. Here Cochrane author Christine East presents the issues and the context surrounding consideration of evidence for breastfeeding.
Richard Branson’s business priorities of employees first, customers second, and shareholders third not only prompts a rethink of the corporate world, it also offers an opportunity to consider a paradigm shift in our approach to breastfeeding. This important public health issue requires that policy makers enable healthcare workers and mothers to be educated, skilled, and supported, and thus meet babies' needs. Which babies? Which mothers? We need to consider singletons, multiples, born prematurely or at term, whose mothers may not be sure how or when to feed, or who experience painful feeding, breast engorgement, or abscesses, or the baby that simply does not want to (or is not ready to) suck. That is pretty much all babies, in all countries.
A new Cochrane Library Special Collection brings together systematic reviews conducted by a wide range of researchers, health professionals, and volunteers, to address these questions. The Collection highlights practices, such as support, for which there is a sufficiency of high-quality evidence, as well as others where the evidence is more uncertain or sparse. The spotlight is also pointed on important gaps in the evidence, including the lack of trials that guide education or support for women having twins or higher-order multiples. This is important, given that breastfeeding rates are lower in this group than for singletons.
As Alison McFadden and Mary Renfrew note in the introduction to the Special Collection, breastfeeding is an internationally important health priority, with far-reaching health and wellbeing benefits for both mothers and their infants. Despite this, only 37% of babies are exclusively breast fed, and this percentage is falling, sometimes disproportionately so in low-income families where it has the most potential for benefit.
Low breastfeeding rates worldwide mean that many women live in communities where breastfeeding is not the norm. This Special Collection provides an excellent starting place to act on the call from the Lancet Series on breastfeeding that “…genuine and urgent commitment is needed from governments and health authorities to establish a new normal: where every woman can expect to breastfeed, and to receive every support she needs to do so.”
The evidence supports actions and commitment that promote breastfeeding as normal, with the focus on the mother and her trained support team. Further normalization can be explored through research and practice initiatives that include: ways of enabling babies in the neonatal unit to receive only breast milk and to be breastfed; ways of educating and training healthcare staff to enable women to breastfeed and to overcome those challenging early days; and ways of tempering/tackling the highly influential marketing of breast milk substitutes.
Christine East, Professor of Midwifery, Monash Women's, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Tuesday, February 28, 2017
The March for Science is a celebration of passion for science and the many ways science serves our global communities.
Cochrane is delighted to announce our official support of and partnership with the March for Science.
This event will be held on Saturday, 22 April 2017 - also known as Earth Day, a commemoration of environmental advocacy and science in the public interest established in the United States nearly 50 years ago. The March is being organized in Washington, DC, with satellite marches in cities around the world, to champion the science that upholds the common good.
The March for Science is a celebration of passion for science and the many ways science serves our global communities. It advocates for robustly funded and publicly communicated science as a pillar of human freedom and prosperity, and for political leaders and policy makers to enact non-partisan, evidence-based policies in the public interest.
Cochrane Co-Chair Professor Lisa Bero commented, “Cochrane is proud to join this unprecedented global gathering of scientists and science enthusiasts to acknowledge the vital role science plays in all our lives and the need to respect and encourage research that gives us insight into the world. This march is an embodiment of our values—to use evidence to lead to better decisions and better health. We encourage all Cochrane members to get involved.”
The March for Science is interested in hearing from Cochrane contributors who would like to organize a march, speak at an existing march, or contribute in other ways. Here is the full list of marches. If you want to get involved in a march, please email firstname.lastname@example.org and we will forward your details to the appropriate march organizers. If you want to get involved in US-based marches, please contact Cochrane US for information.
We are also seeking slogans for march posters and other ideas to be put on hats, t-shirts, and posters for the march. If you have ideas, please email Holly Millward. We aim to publish these in early April to give you plenty of time to prepare.
For more information on how you can get involved, please visit the official March for Science website, or follow the #marchforscience hashtag on Twitter. Please also check Cochrane’s main news channel and follow us on Twitter (@cochranecollab) for the latest updates and resources.
For more information on how you can get involved:
Specifications: Part Time, 0.2 FTE, Fixed Term
Application Closing Date: 08/03/2017
Cochrane is a global independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making the vast amounts of evidence generated through research useful for informing decisions about health. We do this by identifying, appraising and synthesizing individual research findings to produce the best available evidence on what can work, what might harm and where more research is needed. Our work is recognised as the international gold standard for high quality, trusted information. We want to be the leading advocate for evidence-informed health care across the world.
Job Description: The successful candidate will join the existing Cochrane Information Specialist Support Team which provides introductory and ongoing support and training related to Cochrane editorial processes, information technology, and study identification methods to the Cochrane Information Specialist (CIS) community. Support and training is guided by the needs of practicing CISs and current Cochrane policies and technology developments. The post is available for a fixed term of one year.
Requirements: The ideal candidate should have appropriate library or information science qualifications, current or recent experience of working as a CIS in a CRG, field or Center, an understanding of information, retrieval methodologies, particularly as they apply to the production of systematic reviews, experience in biomedical database searching, e.g. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, trial registries, etc.
If you would like to apply for this position, please send a CV along with a supporting statement to email@example.com with “CIS Support Team Member” in the subject line. The supporting statement should indicate why you are applying for the post, and how far you meet the requirements for the post outlined in the job description using specific examples. List your experience, achievements, knowledge, personal qualities and skills which you feel are relevant to the post.
Tuesday, February 21, 2017
For further information, download the full job description
Deadline for applications: 23/01/2017 (12 midnight GMT)
Specifications: Full Time
Salary: £21,000 – 24,000
Location: Central London, UK
Application Closing Date: Friday 17th March 2017
This role is an exciting opportunity to use your experience in administration and/or governance to make a difference in the field of health care research.
The Governance & Administrative Support Officer will be responsible for providing administrative and operational support to Cochrane’s governing groups, including its Governing Board and representative Council. Additionally, the post-holder will work on governance improvement projects led by the Chief Executive Officer’s office, and provide general administrative support to the Central Executive Team.
We are looking for a self-motivated and highly organised individual who is able to work effectively and collaboratively with a diverse range of contacts across the world. The successful candidate will also have:
- Excellent written and verbal communication skills, and a professional telephone manner.
- Excellent interpersonal skills, including the ability to establish and maintain effective working relations with people of different national and cultural backgrounds.
- Good IT literacy, including experience of using Microsoft Office and Adobe Acrobat; and web use.
- Strong organisation and prioritisation skills, with a flexible and pro-active approach to problem-solving.
- Ability to work methodically and accurately.
- Awareness of handling confidential and sensitive information.
- Previous experience of providing administrative support.
- Experience of working with international staff and/or volunteers.
Cochrane is a global, independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making vast amounts of research evidence useful for informing decisions about health. We do this by synthesizing research findings to produce the best available evidence on what can work, what might harm and where more research is needed. Our work is recognised as the international gold standard for high quality, trusted information. An understanding of Cochrane’s work and health research more generally is an advantage, but not essential.
If you would like to apply for this position, please submit your CV along with a supporting statement to firstname.lastname@example.org with “Governance & Administrative Support Officer” in the subject line. The supporting statement should indicate why you are applying for the post, and how far you meet the requirements for the post outlined in the job description using specific examples. List your experience, achievements, knowledge, personal qualities, and skills which you feel are relevant to the post.
No agencies please.
For further information, please download the full job description.
Deadline for applications: Friday 17th March 2017 (12 midnight GMT)
Initial skype interviews to be held: week commencing 20th March
2nd stage interviews to be held: week commencing 27th March
Become a Cochrane citizen scientist!
Cochrane Crowd, Cochrane’s new citizen science platform, is a global community of volunteers who are helping to classify the research needed to support informed decision-making about health care.
The job of the Cochrane Crowd community is to review descriptions of research studies to identify and classify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a type of study that is considered the gold standard for clinical trials. Reports of RCTs are then fed into Cochrane’s Central Register of Controlled Trials, helping Cochrane authors and other systematic reviewers around the world quickly find the evidence they need to determine whether a treatment works, or whether a diagnostic test is accurate.
Anyone can join Cochrane Crowd and no previous experience is necessary. Members find the experience helps build skills in evidence assessment, and by focusing their effort to a health topic of interest they can keep abreast of the latest research. Brief (and fun!) online training is provided, and any contribution is welcome, whether it be five minutes here and there or more focussed periods of time.
Want to get involved? Head over to Cochrane Crowd to sign up and start screening! And don’t forget to tell your colleagues, friends, and families – the more the merrier!
Follow Cochrane Crowd on Twitter, and email email@example.com for further information.